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Rok : 2015, Zeszyt : 01
Urządzanie i monitoring lasu a ustalanie stref uszkodzenia lasu i stopni uszkodzenia drzewostanów
Forest management and monitoring versus establishment of forest damage zones and degrees of stand damage

Abstract: In years 1970−2002, in Poland forest damage zones were distinguished within the framework of forest management works. Since 2003 degrees of stand damage have been determined. This study presents basic characteristics of the methods employed for these purposes concerning the necessity to elaborate a new method of determination of degrees of stand damage. The establishment of forest damage zones and degrees of stand damage cannot be treated as one of the forms of monitoring because in order to determine their range, no observations on the permanent plots and – within their confines – on the same sample trees were and are carried out. Over the time, evaluation criteria or/and ways of establishment of the extent of damages have been undergoing considerable and significant methodological changes and modifications. In terms of dynamically altering quantitative and qualitative impact of different factors affecting forest environment, 10 years period of observation repeatability is far too long to use this information as an indicator of occurring changes. In practice, it was and it still is impossible to determine objectively trends and directions of changes taking place in a given object, which is one of the objectives of forest monitoring. The concept of damage zone should be understood not only as an area of grouping the stands of the same or similar damage, but, equally importantly, as those which happen to be under the influence of the same factor exerting its influence at the same level. Therefore, when determining the range of zones, the following three actions should be taken into consideration simultaneously: complex crown evaluation, dendrometric measurements and monitoring of the effect of the causative agent. In order to trace the trends of the changes on the study plots, the same sample trees must be subjected to evaluations and measurements. From the point of view of the time perspective, examinations should be carried out every 5 years (assessment of the crown condition and dendrometric measurements) or on a continuous basis (monitoring of the effect of the causative agent) irrespective of the forest taxation. It is also advisable to consider possible use of contemporary remote sensing techniques to determine the range of zones and degrees of damage, which preliminary can be used to establish the range, intensity and kind of the damages.

Key words: forest damage, management, monitoring

[SYLWAN 159 (1):13-21, 2015]

Przyrost miąższości drzewostanów mieszanych i litych: wyniki z wybranych stałych powierzchni badawczych w Europie Środkowej
Volume growth of mixed−species versus pure stands: results from selected long−term experimental plots in Central Europe

Abstract: This paper addresses the question of whether or not and to which extent two common tree species mixtures (Norway spruce – European beech; sessile and pedunculate oak – European beech) vary in volume growth from their monocultures. To this end, the results from selected long−term experimental plots located in Germany, Poland and Switzerland, with many of them under survey since the 1890's, were employed. We found than on average both type of mixtures exceeded volume growth in pure stands by almost 30%. The analysis at the species level showed than only a Norway spruce response to mixture was neutral on average, while other tree species were benefitted by mixture. An empirical derived model for mixed stand of oak and European beech disclosed that the interaction can range from facilitation and overyielding on poor sites, through the neutral response under mesotrophic conditions, up to underyielding on fertile sites triggered by competition.

Key words: European beech, Norway spruce, sessile and pedunculate oak, mixed stand, pure stand, facilitation, competition, overyielding, underyielding, close−to−nature silviculture

[SYLWAN 159 (1):22-35, 2015]

Ocena rębni gniazdowej na podstawie drzewostanów uszkodzonych w lasach nizinnych Polski
Evaluation of the group cutting system on the basis of damaged forests in lowland Poland

Abstract: The paper compares the proportion of damaged stands managed under group cutting system (group clear cutting and group shelterwood cutting) with the analogous stands where cuts had not been performed. The empirical material came from the database of the State Forests Information System and covered all forest districts located in Polish lowlands. To evaluate the group cutting a test of differences between the fractions of the elements distinguished in the population was used. The first population involved sawtimber stands in which no group cuts had been performed in the past decade. The number of damaged stands was determined for this population and their percentage share was established. A similar procedure was applied to the second population of stands in which the group cutting was employed. A damaged stand was assumed to be one in which the volume of windbroken and windfallen trees and deadwood harvested in the past 10 years exceeded the volume set in the given formula (1). The performed analysis shows that after several years, the proportion of damaged stands in which gaps were established is significantly higher (57.2%) than in the stands without cut patches (32.9%). Stands with patches demonstrate a significant, statistically greater susceptibility to damage from abiotic and biotic factors. The proportion of damaged stands managed under the group shelterwood cutting (60%) is larger than that under the group clear cutting (55.4%). Spruce is the most vulnerable to damage, while alder − the least vulnerable. On average, the higher proportion of damaged forests, mainly pine and oak forests is in the territory of the Bialystok Regional Directorate of the State Forests (RDSF) (tab. 2) being lower in the territory of the Warsaw RDSF where damaged pine stands are more frequent (tab. 3). In areas with a high probability of damage to stands group cut should be limited, and in spruce stands – totally abandoned. Time regimes should also be established applying the group cutting by shortening the period of reconstruction of the entire forest stand.

Key words: group cutting system, sawtimber stand, demaged stand

[SYLWAN 159 (1):3-12, 2015]

Wydajność aparatu asymilacyjnego sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) różnych klas wieku
Productivity of the assimilation apparatus of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in various age classes

Abstract: Productivity of the assimilating apparatus is commonly defined as an increment in volume, most typically of the stem or trunk, per unit of crown size. In this paper the productivity of the assimilating organ (CPtwn1) is calculated as a quotient of the average annual increment in stem volume from a 5−year period (iv1) and the volume of twigs with needles (twnv), determined by xylometry methods (fluid displacement method). The experimental material comprised measurements taken on 200 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in 8 pure pine stands growing in western Poland (tab. 1). Using the calculated sizes of assimilating apparatus, their arithmetic means and coefficients of variation were calculated for each stand (tab. 2, 3). Additionally, mean crown productivity within each Kraft's class comprising the dominant trees (classes 1, 2 and 3) as well as in the dominated trees (classes 4 and 5) were determined. The strength of the relationship between CPtwn1 and diameter at breast height (d1.3), height (h) and volume of leaved twigs (twnv) was calculated (tab. 4). Moreover, a two−way analysis of variance was conducted to assess the statistical significance of the effect of age of the stand and biosocial class of tree position in the stand (within the dominant trees and the dominated trees) on productivity of the assimilating apparatus. Mean productivity of analysed Scots pine crowns takes the highest values in the youngest stand (0.60 m³), while the lowest – in the oldest stand (0.34 m³). In the youngest, 25−year old pine stand, mean productivity of the assimilating apparatus in trees forming the dominated trees is by 124% greater than that of trees forming the dominant trees. An opposite situation is found in the oldest, 93−year−old stand, where mean productivity of the dominant trees is over 1.5 greater than that recorded in the dominated trees. Statistically significant effect of the stand age on productivity of the assimilating apparatus was observed (tab. 5). However, affiliation of a tree to the dominant or dominated trees does not result in such an effect. On the other hand, there is an interaction between age of the stand and its affiliation to the Kraft's classes. This means that the affiliation of trees to the dominant trees or the dominated trees and its effect on mean productivity of the assimilating apparatus depend on the age of stand.

Key words: volume of leaved twigs, productivity of assimilating apparatus, age classes, Kraft's classes

[SYLWAN 159 (1):36-44, 2015]

Wpływ warstwy drzew na różnorodność roślinności zielnej w zbliżonych do naturalnych wielogatunkowych lasach Puszczy Sandomierskiej
Influence of tree layer on the diversity of the herbaceous vegetation in the semi−natural mixed Sandomierz Forest

Abstract: Stand characteristics are important factors influencing the biodiversity of the herbaceous plants that play important roles in the functioning and shaping the structure of the forest. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of the tree layer and the diversity of the herbaceous layer in the semi−natural remnants of the former Sandomierz Forest (Kolbuszowa Plateau, SE Poland). The study was conducted in ‘Las Klasztorny' reserve on 40 circular plots (0.05 ha) centered on the nodes of a grid covering the area of the reserve. Each plot was analyzed in terms of the composition of the tree stand, and the height and diameter at the breast height (DBH) of live trees. In order to analyze species diversity in the herbaceous layer, the incidence of vascular plant species was recorded on 24 surfaces (1×1 m) along a transect passing through the center of each plots. For each plot the Shannon index of species diversity was calculated. Results were analyzed by multivariate PCA method. Average tree density in the reserve was 741 trees/ha and the average basal area was 33.4 m²/ha. Tree stands consisted mainly of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Carpinus betulus. Fir and pine were the most frequent. Pine had the largest share in the total basal area. The first and second PCA axis demonstrated high correlation of herbaceous plant diversity with tree characteristics (r=0.95 and r=0.71, respectively). The first axis showed the greatest negative relation with beech basal area proportion, and positive dependence on oak density and share of pine in basal area on the research plots. The second gradient showed a strong positive correlation with oak basal area proportion, and negative with trees density. Correlation analysis of tree stand characteristics and the herbaceous layer confirmed the negative impact of beech on herbaceous layer diversity. It also indicated a positive dependence of the herbaceous layer species diversity on species richness in the tree layer, oak density and average DBH. The results indicated a positive dependence of herbaceous plant diversity on the development of the tree stand. The observed greater diversity of herbaceous plants in the old growth forests with diverse spatial and species structures indicates the high importance of the old stands in maintaining forest biodiversity.

Key words: biodiversity, herbaceous layer, ecosystem functioning, monitoring

[SYLWAN 159 (1):45-52, 2015]

Relacje genetyczne pomiędzy polskimi i referencyjnymi populacjami sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) z Europy w analizie polimorfizmu sekwencji nukleotydowych loci nDNA
Genetic relationships between Polish and reference populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Europe based on nucleotide polymorphism study at nuclear loci

Abstract: Adaptation to local environmental gradients is one of main characteristics of living organisms. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most widely distributed conifer in the world and main forest forming component in Europe. Based on genetic, morphological and growth performance traits, several local ecotypes of the species were distinguished across the species distribution range. The existence of local ecotypes differentiated at many adaptive and phenotypic traits provides unique opportunity for addressing the questions about the genetic basis of local adaptation across the species distribution range. However, information about the underlying population structure between ecotypes is needed for efficient studies of adaptive variation at molecular level. The presented study focused on the genetic variation analysis between nineteen populations of Scots pine from across geographical locations in Poland and eleven reference samples from Northern, Western and Southern Europe. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms at 673 polymorphic nucleotide sites found across twenty nine nuclear loci was studied to determine genetic relationship and population structure of different geographical locations. Genetic relationships between populations were conducted based on Baysian assignment and conventional frequency based statistics at the within and between population level. The results indicate very uniform genetic background of Polish populations of the species that despite high phenotypic and ecological differentiation most likely share the same recolonization history. High genetic similarity was found between Polish and North European range of the species. In contrast, differentiation was found in relation to the reference populations from Scotland and Spain that in previous studies were shown to deviate from simple recolonization model after last glaciations and had unique mtDNA mitotypes not observed in continental continuous range of the species, respectively. Considering high differentiation at quantitative traits between northern and central part of the species range in Europe but very homogenous genetic background found in the presented study, it seems that this part of Scots pine distribution is particularly suitable for association genetic studies to find genomic regions that are involved in species adaptive and phenotypic variation.

Key words: nucleotide polymorphism, recolonization, selection, Pinus sylvestris

[SYLWAN 159 (1):53-61, 2015]

Struktura populacji i kondycja zdrowotna cisa pospolitego w rezerwacie „Cisy nad Liswartą”
Population structure and health conditions of European yew in ‘Cisy nad Liswartą' reserve

Abstract: The aim of the study was to recognise the structure (sex, height, diameter) and vitality of European yew (Taxus baccata L.) population in the ‘Cisy nad Liswartą' reserve (50°46'27,12"N 18°47'11,86"E). The field investigations were performed in years 2005−2009. We measured diameter at breast height, diameter at root collar and height of all yews in the reserve. Sex of the individuals was determined as well as their health condition was classified into one of five classes. Total number of life and dead yew specimens (with height over 0,5 m) accounted to 466. Majority of the population grew in dense stands (stand density index 0.5−0.7). Sex was described for 55% of the population. Number of female individuals was 142 (30%) and male 116 (25%). Lack of or small crown transparency was found for 30% of life yew trees. The share of high transparency crowns equalled 11%. Damage caused by the game (especially deer) was older than 10 years and found for 42% life trees. Seedlings occurred under the canopy of 47 mature trees (10% of population). 15 relevés were established in the investigated stands. Natural regeneration of yew was found on 11 of them. 5 characterised with small number of yew seedlings. The greatest number of seedlings equalled 200 individuals. It was found that the number of yews higher than 0.5 m decreased in comparison to the previous surveys. Female and male yew trees occurred in the reserve, so the generative breeding is possible. Health condition of the analysed yew population is moderate. Problems with survival of the seedlings was observed. The special treatments should be recommended – cutting of some competitors to give more light for natural regeneration and fencing the greater number of yew seedlings.

Key words: Taxus baccata, vitality, diameter and height structure, natural regeneration

[SYLWAN 159 (1):62-70, 2015]

Struktura zbiorowisk grzybów i bakterii w glebie 1−rocznej uprawy i 10−letniego młodnika w zależności od sposobu przygotowania gleby
Structure of fungal and bacterial communities in 1−year and 10−year−old plantations of Scots pine after different pre−planting preparation of soil

Abstract: Effects of post−harvest wood−debris utilization and pre−planting soil preparation in clear−cut forest on the community structure of soil fungi and bacteria and their possible biological activity towards Armillaria and Heterobasidion were studied in 1− and 10−year−old Scots pine plantations in Bierzwnik and Międzychód Forest Districts (W Poland). Post−harvest wood−debris utilization included: (i) removal from the surface, (ii) spread of the coarse or chipped wood−debris on the surface and (iii) mixing of the chipped wood debris with the soil. Pre−planting soil preparation included: (i) deep furrowing, (ii) shallow turning of the topsoil, (iii) ridging and (iv) no ground preparation. The soil−dilution method was used for detection of fungi and bacteria in soil. Morphotyping was used for identification of fungi. Phenotypic traits and biochemical properties were used for identification of bacteria. Molecular method, MID−66 or BIOLOG® systems were additionally applied for identification of the most common bacteria. Removal of post−harvest wood−debris from the surface of the clear−cut land and shallow turning of the topsoil or ridging before planting increased abundance of fungi in soil of 1−year−old Scots pine plantation. Deep furrowing resulted in increased abundance of fungi and no ground preparation in increased abundance of bacteria in soil of 10−year−old Scots pine plantation. Increased abundance of fungi and bacteria was associated with increased abundance of taxa considered as antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. Removal of the post−harvest wood debris and moderate or no mechanical intervention into the soil habitat on the clear−cut site before planting of Scots pine seedlings seems to create the habitat, which may be beneficial for the growth of young trees.

Key words: Armillaria, Heterobasidion, Scots pine, silvicultural techniques, soil biological activity

[SYLWAN 159 (1):71-81, 2015]

Florystyczne i fitocenotyczne wskaźniki stanu zachowania lasów zalewowych w miejskiej dolinie rzecznej
Flotistic and phytocenotic indicators of the conditions of riparian forests in the urban river valley

Abstract: Urban river valleys are exposed to strong anthropogenic pressure, but despite these distortions they provide important habitats in urban areas. Not embanked forests are particularly valuable in urban river valleys as they represent fragments of natural vegetation in a highly changed environment. The study assesses the flora and structure of forest communities in a riparian urban forest complex that is under the direct influence of river water. Las Pilczycki Forest in Wrocław (SW Poland) is such a riparian forest island. We analysed the species richness and composition in terms of the phytocoenoses variability and their syntaxonomic classification. We also investigated if the vegetation can indicate a spatial differentiation in habitat conditions. Floristic and phytosociological data were collected from 70 circular plots (100 m&suo2; each) located in a grid. A total of 81 species were recorded, with a mean of 21 species per plot. Most frequent were: Acer campestre, Acer platanoides, Anemone nemorosa, Ficaria verna, Fraxinus excelsior, Galium aparine, Geum urbanum, Impatiens parviflora and Sambucus nigra. In biological spectrum the most numerous were hemicryptophytes, megaphanerophytes and geophytes. The number of alien species was minor (9% of the flora). The most frequent anthropophyte was Impatiens parviflora. Soil moisture, acidity and fertility indices exhibited spatial correlations and they were higher in the western part of the forest. The moisture index was also higher in the northern part. Species richness ranged from 13 to 32 (with a mean of 21 species). Two forms of Ficario−Ulmetum minoris were identified: with Galanthus nivalis and with Tilia cordata. The first was a well−structured riparian community, while the latter one represented the drained floodplain forest. Vegetation units are spatially separated, in the western part of the forest prevails form with Galanthus nivalis, while in the east – with Tilia cordata. In isolated alluvial forests of urban area local site conditions are crucial for the vegetation patches, because of the distortion of river valleys. The absence of flood embankments is not a sufficient condition for maintaining proper structure of riparian forests.

Key words: urban forests, disturbed forest, Ficario−Ulmetum minoris, hydrotechnical constructions

[SYLWAN 159 (1):82-88, 2015]

Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 12
Lata wskaźnikowe świerka pospolitego w Beskidach Zachodnich
Pointer years of Norway spruce in the Western Beskidy Mountains (southern Poland)

Abstract: The frequency of site and zonal pointer years in Norway spruce in two altitudinal zones (500−900 m and 900−1370 m a.s.l.) in the Western Beskidy Mountains was analysed. In total, 32 tree stands were studied – 16 in each zone. In both zones number of negative site pointer years increased along with increase of number of positive site pointer years. Above 900 m a. s. l. number of site pointer years increased along with the altitude, while below 900 m a.s.l. their number decreased along with the altitude. We found no common pointer years for all 32 populations. In lower zone, short winter, early and very warm spring or high precipitation in June and July in a given year caused negative pointer years. In the upper one positive pointer years occurred after the warm autumn and in years with the warm growing season.

Key words: tree rings, pointer years, Norway spruce, Western Beskidy Mountains, altitudinal zone

[SYLWAN 158 (12):883-892, 2014]

Właściwości próchnic gleb tworzących się w warunkach zalesionego zwałowiska po odkrywkowej kopalni siarki
Properties of humus in soils formed on afforested dumping ground of the sulphur mine

Abstract: The paper presents fractional composition and optical properties of the soil organic matter (SOM) developed on afforested dumping ground of the sulphur strip mine in Piaseczno near Tarnobrzeg (southern Poland). Research was designed for different soil−substrates and trees species. Soil−substrate type has the major impact on SOM characteristics at current stage of soil development. Black alder characterized with the strongest influence on SOM quality among species introduced on the dumping ground.

Key words: post−mining sites, afforestation, soil organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids

[SYLWAN 158 (12):893-900, 2014]

Wybrane parametry populacyjne zająca szaraka (Lepus europaeus L.) w rejonach największej liczebności gatunku w Polsce
Population parameters of brown hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in regions of the species highest density in Poland

Abstract: The paper presents the selected indicators of hare populations in Poland. The material consisted of 528 hares acquired during traditional hunts. For each hunted hare we specified its weight, sex and age. All individuals were classified into two age groups: the first comprised juveniles (up to 12 months of age), while the other – adults (over 12 months). The ratio of young individuals in relation adults varies a lot (26−56%). The males to females ratio was approximately 1:1 with a slight advantage in favor of females. Reproductive rate was between 0.36 and 1.26, while reproductive success – 0.7−2.7. Average weight of hunted hares ranged between 3.42 and 4.32 kg. No significant differences in body weight were noticed within gender groups (Z=1.298, p>0.05, Mann−Whitney U test). However, they were found within the age groups (Z=–9.657, p <0.05, Mann−Whitney U test).

Key words: brown hare, eye lens, age structure, population dynamics, Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (12):901-910, 2014]

Jakość trofealna muflonów tryków pozyskanych w Górach Bardzkich
Trophy quality of mouflons in the Bardzkie Mountains

Abstract: The aim of the study was to characterize individual quality of mouflon harvested in the Bardzkie Mountains (south−west Poland). The assessment criteria included horn dimensions, i.e. their length, circumference (base, middle and top), spread and twist. These features were individually analyzed for each mouflon ram. Medal value of the trophies expressed as CIC scores increased with the ram age reaching 187.12 for 6−years−old animals. Three out of 50 measured trophies were classified into the bronze medal category, as they crossed the threshold of 185 CIC points. All medal−winning individuals were 6 years old.

Key words: mouflon, horns, Bardzkie Mountains, CIC

[SYLWAN 158 (12):911-919, 2014]

Sprawozdanie Zarządu Głównego z działalności Polskiego Towarzystwa Leśnego od 7 września 2013 roku do 5 września 2014 roku

[SYLWAN 158 (12):920-949, 2014]

Spis treści rocznika CLVIII „Sylwana”
Content of annual CLVIII of "Sylwan"

[SYLWAN 158 (12):950-959, 2014]

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