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Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 07
Wpływ redystrybucji środków funduszu leśnego na rentowność nadleśnictw
Effect of redistribution of forestry fund financial resources on the economic profitability of the forest districts

Abstract: The study determines the effect of re−allocation of forestry fund financial resources within the forestry sector on the assessed profitability of economic activity of forest districts. The financial standing of forest districts was evaluated based on the return on equity (ROE) and current ratio (CR). The analysis showed the effect of redistribution of forestry fund financial resources on changes in profitability of forest districts.

Key words: financial system, forestry fund, forest management financing

[SYLWAN 158 (7):483-490, 2014]

Bezpośrednie koszty i źródła finansowania ochrony przyrody i różnorodności biologicznej w nadleśnictwach w województwie mazowieckim
Direct costs and sources of financing of nature conservation and biodiversity protection in forest districts in the Mazowieckie Province

Abstract: The paper analyses direct costs of nature conservation and biodiversity protection incurred by forest districts of the State Forests in the Mazowieckie Province in the period 2008−2011. It also examines sources of their financing. The study shows that the largest amount of money – 65% of all costs – was spent on a wide range of activities related to biodiversity protection. The most significant fund donors were forest districts themselves. They provided 68.3% of all resources for nature conservation and biodiversity protection. The research also shows that funds received for these purposes from the state budget are rather of secondary importance.

Key words: public funds, subsidies, forest policy

[SYLWAN 158 (7):491-498, 2014]

Spontaniczne odnowienie drzewostanu zaburzonego huraganem w lipcu 2002 roku
Spontaneous regeneration of a stand disturbed by a hurricane in July 2002

Abstract: Spontaneous regeneration in the hurricane−disturbed stand in the Pisz Forest District (N Poland) was registered in the years 2007−2008 and 2011−2012. Breast height diameter and crown size were measured on 10×10 m plots. The analysis also included the soil respiration rate, the decomposition rate of organic matter, soil pH, leaf area index (LAI), content of Mg, Ca, C, N and P in soil, and vegetation coverage of the forest floor. The natural regeneration was dominated by birch, followed by pine, which recolonized the disturbed stand in smaller extend, possibly because of the thick cover of organic material hindering germination and making it difficult for pine sprouts to reach the mineral soil. Spontaneous regeneration of the stand was most severely inhibited by Deschampsia flexuosa, whose growth over the entire surface was linked to the capture of excess released nitrogen resulting from the decomposition of organic matter. Mosses and lingonberry did not delay the spontaneous appearance of seedlings. The development of the natural regeneration suggests the possibility that an uneven−aged stand will emerge.

Key words: windthrow, disturbance, Scots pine, regenerative succession, spontaneous regeneration

[SYLWAN 158 (7):499-508, 2014]

Pochodzenie świerka pospolitego (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) w Nadleśnictwie Kartuzy
Origin of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the Kartuzy Forest District

Abstract: The origin of the Norway spruce in the Kartuzy Forest District was verified using the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA marker mt15−D02 that shows distinct geographical distribution in Europe. We analyzed 462 trees from 26 populations. The majority of trees were of Alpine origin and they were present in all populations at a frequency of 6−90% (mean 59%). About 30% of trees were of the Carpathian origin and the least abundant (11%) were trees of north−eastern origin. The trees carrying north−eastern type of the mitochondial DNA marker were found only in 13 populations, but at a very different frequency (from 5 to 88%). The possibility of natural origin of Norway spruce in the area of Kartuzy Forest District was shortly discussed.

Key words: origin, Picea abies, mitochondrial marker, mitotype

[SYLWAN 158 (7):509-515, 2014]

Polimorfizm izoenzymów świerka pospolitego rasy istebniańskiej, tarnawskiej oraz wybranych pochodzeń doświadczenia IPTNS−IUFRO 1964/68 w Krynicy
Isoenzyme polymorphism of Norway spruce of the Istebna and Tarnawa race and selected provenances tested in IPTNS−IUFRO 1964/68 trial in Krynica

Abstract: In this study the genetic structure of Istebna and Tarnawa plus trees was studied and polymorphism of twenty four provenances of spruce tested in a IPTNS−IUFRO 1964/68 site in Krynica representing selected regions of the species occurrence was analyzed. The genetic diversity was estimated with seven isoenzyme systems encoded in eleven loci. The highest genetic polymorphism was shown by plus trees of the Istebna and Tarnawa race and the lowest by spruce from IUFRO experiment. There was a statistically significant effect of origin on the mean number of alleles per locus. The origin of the analyzed trees had no effect on other parameters of genetic variability: the effective number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity and Wright index.

Key words: Picea abies, IUFRO, isoenzymes, genetic variability

[SYLWAN 158 (7):516-523, 2014]

Wpływ oddziaływań brzegowych na roślinność polan leśnych w Sudetach Środkowych
Influence of the edge effect on the vegetation of forest glades in the Middle Sudety Mts. (SW Poland)

Abstract: The influence of the edge effect on the meadow vegetation pattern was studied in the forest glades in the central part of the Middle Sudety Mts. (SW Poland). The spectacular edge effect is seen in the range of 4 m from the forest border towards the center of the glades. Within that belt we observed decrease in tree and bush species number, increase in share of graminoids and Fabaceae species, as well as increase in share of species generally related to grassland communities. A significant increase in species number and values of Shannon−Wiener diversity index was noticed within the distance of eight meters from the edges of glades.

Key words: forest glades, edge effect, species composition, functional groups, species diversity

[SYLWAN 158 (7):524-530, 2014]

Efekty ochrony rzadkich gatunków roślin na przykładzie zimoziołu północnego Linnaea borealis w rezerwacie Górki
Effects of rare plants species conservation – a case study of twinflower Linnaea borealis in Górki nature reserve

Abstract: The paper presents vegetation changes of Górki nature reserve in terms of their impact on the main subject of conservation – twinflower Linnaea borealis. The research was conducted between 1969 and 1974 and during this investigation a mixed forest Pino−Quercetum was noted. After 50 years of strict protection the studies were repeated to describe the reserve's flora and vegetation dynamics. A considerable decrease in number is particularly observed in species belonging to Vaccinio−Piceetea class. The main subject of conservation withdrew. Nowadays, vegetation evolved into an oak−hornbeam forest Tilio−Carpinetum betuli. Statistically relevant changes have also been noted as regards the soil acidity and the trophic status of the nature reserve's flora, based on ecological indicators.

Key words: twinflower, oak−hornbeam forest, mixed coniferous forest, dynamic tendencies

[SYLWAN 158 (7):531-538, 2014]

Ocena potencjalnych zasobów pokarmowych i osłon dla kuropatw (Perdix perdix) w miejscach ich reintrodukcji w warunkach rolnictwa ekstensywnego
Potential food resources and cover for Grey partridges (Perdix perdix) reintroduced in the landscape of extensive agriculture

Abstract: The study assesses potential food resources and cover for Grey partridges reintroduced in extensive agriculture conditions in central Poland. Research material consisted of data from 315 1 m². study plots located in seven types of land use. Significant dynamics of food resources and cover with regard to season and land use form was found. Small crop areas or lack of intensive agrotechnical treatments do not create favourable conditions for partridges occurrence. Cereal fields may be used by the birds only in autumn−winter time. Meadows and barrens are sufficient environment but only by the time they lose their structure because of vegetation development. Stubbles offer the greatest variability of food, but are not stable part of the landscape and soon after the harvest time partridges leave them.

Key words: Perdix perdix, reintrodction, food resources, cover

[SYLWAN 158 (7):539-552, 2014]

Zmienność i funkcja czerwonych ornamentów u dzięcioła średniego
Variability and the function of red ornaments in Middle Spotted Woodpecker

Abstract: Intensity of plumage colour may advertise individual condition, health and parasite resistance of birds. Although numerous studies confirmed such function of ornaments in songbirds, still very little is known about signalling properties of colour feathers in woodpeckers. We test whether the size and colour of a red cap displayed by both male and female Middle Spotted Woodpeckers are related to mass and length of tarsus, wing, tail and beak. We found that body mass was correlated with cap width and brightness in woodpeckers of both sexes. At the same time body mass affected reproductive success of individuals. This suggests that both cap width and brightness has the potential to signal individual condition in the studied species.

Key words: Dendrocopos medius, carotenoid plumage, spectrometry

[SYLWAN 158 (7):553-560, 2014]

Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 06
Do czytelników

[SYLWAN 158 (6):403-403, 2014]

Wpływ warunków siedliskowych na zróżnicowanie wysokości dębu na gniazdach
Effect of habitat conditions on the variation of oak height in the gaps

Abstract: The paper presents the study on the height of 10−12−year−old pedunculate oak regeneration in clear−cut gaps in three fertility variants: mezotrophic of poorer productivity (fresh mixed coniferous forest – BMśw), mezotrophic of higher productivity (fresh mixed deciduous forest – LMśw) and eutrophic (fresh deciduous forest – Lśw). BMśw and LMśw were represented by two locations: Gostynin (G) and Parczew (P), while Lśw – by one: Czarna Białostocka (CzB). We analysed the variation of oak height in the patches along the north−south (N−S) and east−west (E−W) gap axes. In each location 3−5 gaps were selected and measurements taken on three transects along the N−S axis located in the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) part. Significant differences in oak height were found along the N−S axis. Oaks in the BMśw and LMśw habitats in the south−central part, and those in the Lśw habitat in the centre−northern part of the patch were the highest. The height growth of oaks on sandy soils (BMśw, LMśw) was found to be limited by moisture deficit, while on loamy soils (Lśw) – by light deficiency. The differences in oak height along the E−W axis were smaller and less apparent, indicating a tendency towards the reduction of their height growth in the central part of the gap.

Key words: pedunculate oak, clear−cut gap, plantations, forest regeneration, patch cutting system

[SYLWAN 158 (6):404-413, 2014]

Aproksymacja rozkładów pierśnic drzew w dwugeneracyjnych drzewostanach za pomocą rozkładów mieszanych. III. Estymatory jądrowe a rozkłady mieszane
Approximation of the breast height diameter distribution of two−cohort stands by mixture models. III. Kernel density estimators vs mixture models

Abstract: Two−component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution and the kernel density estimator were used for describing the diameter at breast height (dbh) empirical distributions of two−cohort stands. The data consisted of study plots from the Świętokrzyski National Park (central Poland) and areas close to and including the North Carolina section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA; southern Appalachians). Kernel density estimators belong to a class of nonparametric density estimators. Nonparametric estimators have no fixed structure and depend upon all the data points to reach an estimate. In this study the Weibull and the gamma mixture distributions were the most versatile models. The results also support the conclusion that there are only minor differences between the parametric models and the kernel density estimates.

Key words: two−component models, kernel density estimator, tree diameter distribution, Monte Carlo simulation

[SYLWAN 158 (6):414-422, 2014]

Wpływ jakości siedliska na dynamikę wydzielania brzozy na gruntach porolnych
Effect of site quality on self−thinning dynamics in silver birch stands on abandoned farmlands

Abstract: Paper discusses the influence of site quality on self−thinning process in silver birch stands growing on abandoned farmlands in Mazowieckie region (central Poland). Number of trees in a stand decreases with increasing age. The better the site (the higher site index value), the higher number of trees can be observed. However at the age of 10 difference between sites of various quality (site index) become insignificant. There is no need to include site index into the self−thinning models for young silver birch stands.

Key words: stand density, site index, silver birch, afforestation, central Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (6):423-430, 2014]

Dokładność wzorów empirycznych służących do określania biomasy nadziemnych komponentów drzew olszy czarnej (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)
Accuracy of empirical formulas for determining aboveground biomass of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

Abstract: The study investigated the accuracy of thirty equations formulated in England, Sweden, Turkey, Lithuania and Spain and which aim to determine the aboveground biomass of black alder. The reference constituted of bark, timber, stem, branches and leaves dry biomass of 168 sample trees aged 6−96 from 56 alder stands located in the western part of Kotlina Sandomierska (south−eastern Poland). The analysed formulas, considering local conditions, resulted in biased biomass calculations. The evaluation of such components as leaves, branches, trunk timber or trunk bark is subject to systematic errors larger than a dozen or so per cent, and in certain ranges of breast height diameters − up to even a couple of dozens or a few hundred per cent. Only three out of 30 formulas may be considered useful for estimating aboveground biomass of black alder in Poland.

Key words: black alder, aboveground biomass, accuracy assessment, empirical formulas, Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (6):431-442, 2014]

Wpływ skały macierzystej na przestrzenne zróżnicowanie zasobów węgla organicznego w glebach leśnych
Influence of parent material on the spatial distribution of organic carbon stock in the forest soils

Abstract: The study focused on the influence of several soil properties and forest species composition on spatial distribution of organic carbon stock in soils developed from the contrasted parent materials: Tertiary claystones and sandstones, and Qurternary sands of different origins. Soil sampling was performed on 110 plots, while forest mensuration was conducted on 82 ones. The content of <0.05 mm fraction determined by the type of parent material played a key role in the distribution of carbon stock in soils. Higher content of fine fraction favoured the accumulation in mineral part of soil, while higher sand content had an indirect influence on accumulation of carbon in the organic horizon. Forest species composition and biomass volume are more important for C accumulation in the O horizons. Taking into account the geological heterogeneity, the size of investigation area played a prominent role for the statistical significance of the observed correlations between carbon stocks and the other soil properties.

Key words: carbon sequestration, spatial variability, species composition, soil properties

[SYLWAN 158 (6):443-452, 2014]

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