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| TADEUSZ ANDRZEJCZYK, MICHAŁ DZWONKOWSKI, MACIEJ PAWŁOWSKI, RADOSŁAW DZIAŁAK|
Wpływ osłony bocznej drzewostanu na wzrost dębu bezszypułkowego (Quercus petraea) i grabu pospolitego (Carpinus betulus) w fazie uprawy
Effect of lateral shelter on a height growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) in young growth phase
Abstract: We investigated annual height increment of sessile oak and common hornbeam planted on clear−cut in respect to the distance to the adjacent mature Scots pine stand. The study area was divided into 3 zones (I−III) each of 20 m width. The four analyzed treatments were defined on a basis of a mingling form: W1 – a monoculture of oak (control plot), W2 and W3 – two types of row mixture, W4 – single tree mixture. Two years after planting an annual height increment of both tree species was significantly higher in the zone I (adjacent to the mature pine stand from the SW side) than in two other zones. The same significant differences were also found at the other inventories. Although hornbeam was on average higher than oak, a growth inhibition of oak by hornbeam was not significant. The annual height increment of both species was correlated with the precipitation in June and July.
Key words: oak silviculture, hornbeam, height growth, mixed stands, mixture form
[SYLWAN 158 (10):723-732, 2014]
| STANISŁAW DROZDOWSKI, TADEUSZ ANDRZEJCZYK, KAMIL BIELAK, WŁODZIMIERZ BURACZYK, LESZEK GAWRON|
Planowanie hodowlane z wykorzystaniem metody BDq w drzewostanach świerkowych na siedliskach bagiennych
Silvicultural planning in spruce mire forests by the means of the BDq method
Abstract: This paper addresses problems associated with the silvicultural planning in the Norway spruce mire forests (Sphagno girgensohnii−Piceetum Polak. 1962) that are characterized by an uneven−aged structure and a high degree of irregularity at small scale. Based on detailed inventory using 30 permanent circular sample plots in two control units located in the Augustów Forest (NE Poland), the BDq method was employed for determining future silvicultural activities of the current forest management cycle. The equilibrium models are based on diameter distributions and have the following parameters, depending on site conditions: B=28 m²/ha; q−factor=1.32 and D=51 cm in the case of poorer forest site type (S.−P. typicum) and 55 cm more fertile one (S.−P. thelypteridetosum).
Key words: close−to−nature silviculture, equilibrium model, Norway spruce mire forest, silvicultural planning
[SYLWAN 158 (10):733-742, 2014]
| WOJCIECH GIL, GRZEGORZ ZAJĄCZKOWSKI|
Występowanie drzewostanów z udziałem lipy drobnolistnej (Tilia cordata Mill.) na terenie zarządzanym przez Lasy Państwowe
Occurrence of stands with small−leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) in the forests managed by the State Forests
Abstract: The paper concerns the occurrence of small−leaved lime in the Polish forests on the basis of stand description contained in the main database of the State Forests. The analysis includes the geographical occurrence of lime in all forest layers and according to age class of stands with lime as well as their habitat and soil preferences. Special attention was paid to the stands with lime as the dominant species.
Key words: Tilia cordata, stand structure, the State Forests
[SYLWAN 158 (10):743-753, 2014]
| WOJCIECH SZEWCZYK|
Skala zniekształceń systemów korzeniowych sosny zwyczajnej Pinus sylvestris (L.) w uprawach leśnych
Range of deformation of root system in young Scots pine plantations
Abstract: Deformation of root system as a result of root crookedness, bending or other injuries during plantation represent the main reason predestinating trees to parasitic infection. The objective of the presented work was the determination of the intensified occurrence of root deformation during tree plantation and the appearance of root pathogens. Observations were carried out on 5 sites localized in young Scots pine stands (up to 10 years old), from which 1522 samples of infected roots were collected. The obtained results confirmed that majority of trees showed deformed roots (95% represented roots with deformations). The greatest number of roots was characterized by symptoms accepted in the classification as second degree of deformation, i.e. without a visible main root and with numerous lateral roots.
Key words: deformation of root system, root pathogens, Scots pine plantation
[SYLWAN 158 (10):754-760, 2014]
| MAGDALENA KACPRZYK|
Wpływ warunków mikrośrodowiskowych na zasiedlenie przez entomofaunę kambio−ksylofagiczną gałęzi świerkowych pozostawianych w drzewostanach po cięciach gospodarczych
Effect of microsite conditions on colonization of cambio−xylophagous insects on Norway spruce branches left after the silvicultural treatments
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and humidity on colonization of cambio−xylophagous insects on Norway spruce branches in relation to the place and method of slash utilization. Analyzed branches were infested by eight species of cambiophagous and two species of cambioxylophagous, whereas the material utilization method does not substantially influence the entomofauna species composition. The most numerous were: Pityogenes chalcographus, Ips amitinus, Dryocoetes autographus and Pityophthorus pityographus. The branches treatment was a factor contributing significantly to the infestation intensity by P. chalcographus and I. amitinus, reaching a higher density of galleries on the branches spreading disorderly on the forest floor than collected in the piles. Moreover, it was found that the location of branches inside the pile determines their attractiveness to hygrophilous species with a minor economic importance. Significant differences in temperature and relative humidity inside the piles and the surrounding branches scattered disorderly on the surface during the growing season indicate that this may be an important factor influencing logging residues left in the forest infestation intensity by bark beetles.
Key words: Picea abies (L.) Karst., branches, utilization method, microhabitat, bark beetles
[SYLWAN 158 (10):761-768, 2014]
| MICHAŁ BRACH, JAN KACZMAROWSKI|
Ocena możliwości wykorzystania modelu HSI do analizy rozprzestrzeniania się pożaru lasu
Suitability of the HSI model for the analysis of the forest fire spread
Abstract: An attempt was made to determine fire selectivity for different vegetation classes and habitat conditions using the HSI (Habitat Suitability Index) model. This is an example of expert model based on theoretical knowledge and experience of researchers. HSI analyses were originally designed to study animal habitat preferences. The assessment of inherent differences in the flammability of the selected fragments of forest stands was carried out on the basis of the derivative vector layers and raster images. The obtained results show fuel characteristics of the forest environment and the theoretical paths of fire spread preferences.
Key words: fire, forest, HSI index, GIS, laser scanning, fire spread
[SYLWAN 158 (10):769-778, 2014]
| IWONA SKRZECZ, ALICJA SOWIŃSKA, WOJCIECH JANISZEWSKI|
Wpływ antyfidantów botanicznych na rozwój chrząszczy chrabąszcza majowego
Impact of botanical antifeedants on the development of Melolontha melolontha L. beetles
Abstract: The study evaluates the antifeedant activity of rutin and quercetin (flavonoids of buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum) and the extract from the leaves of black alder Alnus glutinosa on the development and the extent of damage caused by the beetles of cockchafer Melolontha melolontha in laboratory and semi−field conditions. We found increased mortality and decreased intensity of beetle feeding on the Quercus robur leaves sprayed with a solution of rutin. The treatment of Q. robur leaves with solutions of quercetin and extract from the leaves of black alder had no effect on the development of beetles and fertility of females, and did not inhibit feeding of cockchafer.
Key words: Melolontha melolontha, antifeedants, rutin, quercetin, Alnus glutinosa
[SYLWAN 158 (10):779-786, 2014]
| MARCIN JAKUBOWSKI, TOMASZ JELONEK, ARKADIUSZ TOMCZAK|
Wytrzymałość na ściskanie wzdłuż włókien drewna sosny zwyczajnej uszkodzonej i nieuszkodzonej przez wiatr
Compressive strength parallel to grain of Scots pine wood of wind−damaged and undamaged trees
Abstract: Research was carried out in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands damaged by strong wind in six locations in Poland. The aim of this study was to analyse the radial variation of compressive strength parallel to grain in the wind−broken trees and neighbouring survivors. Strength tests were conducted in moisture above saturation fibre point. There were no significant differences in the radial distribution of the compressive strength between the compression side (breakage side) and the tension side (the opposite one). Either there were no significant differences between compression strength of damaged trees and neighbouring standing trees.
Key words: wood properties, strong wind, Scots pine, wood defects
[SYLWAN 158 (10):787-794, 2014]
| MARCIN MICHALAK, BEATA P. PLITTA, SZYMON KOTLARSKI, PAWEŁ CHMIELARZ|
Czy kriokonserwacja jest bezpieczna? Określenie potencjalnych zmian w tkankach roślinnych poddanych kriogenicznemu przechowywaniu
Cryopreservation – is it safe? Possible changes in cryostored plant genetic resources
Abstract: Cryopreservation (storage in liquid nitrogen, –196°C) is a technique that ensures safe, long−term conservation of plant species with recalcitrant seeds, vegetatively propagated species and biotechnology products such as somatic embryos, cell lines and genetically transformed material. The aim of cryostorage is to keep plant tissue in a safe way, which does not cause changes during storage at neither phenotypic, cytological and histological, biochemical, genetic nor epigenetic level. Therefore, before cryostorage will be applied for long−term preservation it should be thoroughly assess if it does not cause any injuries in plant material.
Key words: cryopreservation, liquid nitrogen, epigenetics, preservation of genetic resources
[SYLWAN 158 (10):795-800, 2014]
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| KRZYSZTOF ADAMOWICZ, TOMASZ NOGA|
Wielowymiarowa analiza bankructwa przedsiębiorstw w przemyśle drzewnym
Multivariate analysis of bankruptcy in companies in the wood sector
Abstract: The article describes the accuracy of Altman and Mączyńska predictive models. The research material consisted only of financial economic reports from wood−furniture sector for years 2003−2012. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was the main method applied in the study and which was used for three years in advance before bankruptcy. To evaluate the accuracy of the analysed models, the companies classification matrix and the odds ratio were used. Obtained results showed higher prediction accuracy of Mączyńska model. Moreover, comparing with the Altman model, Mączyńska system was better adapted as a multiple discriminant analysis model allowing forecasting of bankruptcy and continued functioning of companies in the wood sector.
Key words: forestry economics, prediction, discriminant analysis, bankruptcy
[SYLWAN 158 (9):643-650, 2014]
| STANISŁAW DROZDOWSKI|
Planowanie hodowlane w drzewostanach jodłowych o złożonej strukturze z wykorzystaniem metody BDq w Nadleśnictwie Zagnańsk
Silvicultural planning in complex structures of silver fir by means of the BDq method in Zagnańsk Forest District
Abstract: The paper deals with problems concerning silvicultural planning in silver fir stands in Zagnańsk Forest District (central Poland) that are characterized by complex structure. Based on a detailed inventory using 98 permanent circular sample plots in four control units the BDq method was employed for determining the future silvicultural activities of the current forest management cycle. The equilibrium model is based on diameter distributions and has the following parameters: B=35 m²/ha; D=63 cm and q−factor=1.28.
Key words: close−to−nature silviculture, complex stand structure, multifunctional forestry, silver fir, silvicultural planning
[SYLWAN 158 (9):651-660, 2014]
| MAREK SŁAWSKI|
Zmiany składu gatunkowego i stopnia pokrycia przez rośliny na powierzchniach zaburzonych przez huragan na terenie Puszczy Piskiej w 2002 roku
Changes in species composition and cover of understory plants in stands disturbed by a hurricane in Piska Forest in 2002
Abstract: Comparison of understory of stands disturbed by hurricane and managed ones allowed to distinguish two phases that include degenerative and regenerative changes. In the first phase, which lasted about 6 years, following processes were observed: chaotic changes in species composition, invasion of exogenous species, increase in cover of Deschampsia flexuosa and Vaccinium vitis−idaea, decrease in moss cover and Vaccinium myrtillus as well. In the second phase changes had opposite direction. Structure of ground flora typical to Scots pine forest was slowly developing. Increasing shade of forest floor, caused by growing shrub layer and regeneration of tree species, was a key factor of the regeneration process.
Key words: disturbance, windthrow, regeneration, Szast Protected Forest
[SYLWAN 158 (9):661-668, 2014]
| ELŻBIETA JAMROZ, JERZY WEBER, MAGDALENA DĘBICKA|
Wpływ odnowienia lasu zrębem zupełnym na trofizm gleb rdzawych na przykładzie Nadleśnictwa Spała
Trophic soil index of the rusty soils affected by clear−cutting in the Spała Forest District
Abstract: The paper describes the influence of clear−cutting on the fertility of rusty soils expressed by trophic soil index. Soils in the Spała Forest District (central Poland) were covered by coniferous or mixed coniferous forests. Clear−cutting in acidic and oligotrophic mixed coniferous forests decreased soil fertility and affected an increase of hydrolitic acidity, particularly in Oh and Bv horizons. This type of timber harvest influenced also decrease of organic carbon in the first year after cutting.
Key words: forest soils, trophic soil index, forest soil quality, soil organic carbon
[SYLWAN 158 (9):669-674, 2014]
| REMIGIUSZ PIELECH, MAREK MALICKI|
Relacje między typem siedliskowym lasu a zbiorowiskiem roślinnym w warunkach górskich
Relationships between forest habitat types and phytosociological classification in mountain environment
Abstract: Two main typological systems (forest habitat types and phytosociological classification) are used in forest research in Poland. The paper presents relationships between forest associations and forest habitat types in mountain environment of the Promotional Forest Complex ‘Sudety Zachodnie' (SW Poland). The results show that the link between these two topological systems is rather weak and ambiguous. This has strong implications for nature conservation in Poland, where forestry databases are widely used for inventories of protected habitats (in the sense of Habitat Directive).
Key words: forest habitat types, phytosociological classification, syntaxonomy
[SYLWAN 158 (9):675-683, 2014]
| BERNARD GAŁKA, CEZARY KABAŁA, BEATA ŁABAZ, ADAM BOGACZ|
Wpływ drzewostanów o zróżnicowanym udziale świerka na gleby różnych typów siedliskowych lasu w Górach Stołowych
Influence of stands with diversed share of Norway spruce in species structure on soils of various forest habitats in the Stołowe Mountains
Abstract: Chemical properties and fertility of soils were compared under spruce, mixed and beech stands in four types of forest habitat (mountain broadleaf forest, mountain mixed broadleaf forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest and mountain coniferous forest) in 373 sites of forest monitoring in the Stołowe Mountains National Park, SW Poland. Soils under the spruce stands had higher organic carbon pools in their upper horizons, but lower pH, increased activity of exchangeable aluminum, lower contents of exchangeable base cations, available potassium and magnesium, resulting finally in lower values of the soil trophic index (SIG). The negative impact of spruce monocultures on the physicochemical soil properties was much stronger in the eutrophic habitats (dedicated to broadleaf forest) than in dystrophic ones. Weak positive effect of the beech introduction on soils in the dystrophic habitats indicated that the conversion of the coniferous into mixed or deciduous stands would not cause a rapid improvement in the physicochemical properties deformed previously under spruce monocultures.
Key words: pH, organic carbon, soil fertility, forest habitat type, trophic soil index
[SYLWAN 158 (9):684-694, 2014]