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Rok : 2015, Zeszyt : 04
Kształtowanie cen oraz metody sprzedaży surowca cennego w Polsce
Prices and sales methods of the valuable timber in Poland

Abstract: The analysis of the sales methods and prices of the highest quality timber (wood veneer, plywood and telecommunication poles) was based on the data obtained from the General Directorate of the State Forests covering the period 2005−2009. They were supplemented by the data on sales, prices and revenues from sales, auctions and submissions obtained from the Regional Directorates of the State Forests (RDSF) in: Szczecin, Poznań, Białystok, Krosno and Lublin. The results of the submission sales organized by the Krosno RDSF and auctions organized by the Poznań RDSF in 2005−2009 were also analysed. The analyses confirm that sales of the highest quality wood through auctions and submissions give the best economic results while ensuring the optimal use of the existing resource base. Both sales methods foster rational use of valuable wood and therefore should be adopted in other RDSFs. In the years 2005−2009, the difference (increase) between wood valuation and the derived income from the auction sales organized in the Poznań RDSF amounted to 39.6%. The difference (increase) between wood valuation and the derived income from the submission sales organized in the Krosno RDSF in the same period amounted to 80.1%. The maximum prices of wood veneer obtained through auctions and submissions are higher than the prices obtained via Internet sales. Among the WA1 assortments sold in Poland in the years 2005−2009, sycamore, maple, and cherry veneer reached the highest average price per cubic meter. Among the wood species from which veneer is produced, oak veneer is the most sold species. Among the WB1 assortments sold in Poland in the years 2005−2009, pine and spruce plywood reached the highest average price per cubic meter. The prices of birch, beech and alder plywood were lower and varied by a maximum of 6.7%. Among the species from which plywood is produced, birch plywood sells bests.

Key words: veneer, plywood, timber prices, timber sales, auctions, submission sales

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (4):267-277]

Wieloletnie zmiany składu gatunkowego drzewostanów naturalnych w Puszczy Białowieskiej
Long−term changes of tree species composition in natural stands of the Białowieża Forest

Abstract: In the paper the long term dynamics (about 40 years) of selected, the most important, natural forest stands of the Białowieża Forest were presented. The studies were carried out on 120 permanent study plots, located both in nature reserves and in the Białowieża National Park. The DBH of all the trees were measured and the number of all the individuals trees and shrubs species with the height under 1,3 m was counted. The analysis of tree species composition and their density changes was carried out, as well as their natural regeneration was analyzed. The strong expansion of hornbeam were observed (fig. 1a, b; tab.). Actually this species was predominant in forest stands, in natural regeneration and was expansive to the more oligotrophic and mezotrophic forest stands, causing their unification towards hornbeam forest. Norway spruce generally declined in abundance and became limited to oligotrophic forest communities. Significantly reduction this species were observed, especially on the mixed coniferous forest at mixed deciduous forest stands. Scots pine, oak and birch declined their share in forest stands, as well as their natural regeneration have been limited too (tab.). In the short time of the last 15 years, the strong reduction of ash share in forest stands has been observed, and the more rapid changes in all the forest stands composition as well.

Key words: Białowieża National Park, natural stands, undergrowth, hornbeam expansion, spruce reduction

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (4):278-288]

Czynniki wpływające na wydajność i koszty zabiegów agrolotniczych wykonywanych na terenie Regionalnej Dyrekcji Lasów Państwowych w Pile w roku 2013
Factors affecting the efficiency and costs of airborne spraying in Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Piła in 2013

Abstract: The Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC) establishes a framework for European Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides imposed restrictions in agro−aviation pesticides application. As a result of the creation of buffer zones, part of the endangered area must be excluded from spraying and the area will be fragmented. This article evaluated the impact of the size, shape and distance between the sprayed area and the aerodrome, on the efficiency and cost of agro−aviation spraying in Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Piła (western Poland) in 2013. The efficiency of agro−aviation spraying is highly positively correlated with the shape and size of sprayed area. Weak negative correlation was found with the distance between the sprayed area and the aerodrome. The obtained efficiency ranged from 23.37 to 198.98 ha/h, while the costs covered the span from 61.96 to 423.34 zł/ha. The structure of unit costs varied depending on the spraying parameters. The costs of aircraft charter and purchase of pesticides are dominating part of the whole process. Variability of the spraying costs causes that their averaging distorts the results and makes it difficult to plan the future costs.

Key words: airborne spraying, efficiency, unit costs, sprayed area

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (4):289-299]

Rok : 2015, Zeszyt : 03
Gęstość sieci dróg leśnych – ekonomiczny punkt widzenia
Density of forest road network – economic point of view

Abstract: The study determines the optimal density of forest road network in order to minimize the costs of wood transportation, taking into account the current and future harvest range and timber export. The study was conducted on a group of 44 forest districts, representative of the current technical state and density of forest road network in the State Forests in Poland. Analysis of the state of the road network was carried out considering the type of the road surface and from the point of view of the density of the road network. In the studied forest districts unsurfaced roads constitute 75.3% of the total length of the roads. These roads are characterized by inadequate technical quality, and are practically unfit for high tonnage vehicles. The optimal density of the forest roads (qo) is determined based on knowledge of the predicted harvest volume (V), the cost of skidding 1 m³ for distances of 1 km (d), the expected life of the roads (n), the road construction cost (I) and the road maintenance cost (R) (formula [2]). Calculations were carried out for variant I (actual data), variant II (increase in one parameter, e.g. the harvest cost by 50%), variant III (increase in two parameters simultaneously, e.g. the harvest cost by 50% and the road construction cost by 10%) and variant IV (increase in two parameters on a larger scale, e.g. harvest costs by 80% and construction costs by 10%). In the variant I, the optimal density of the road network ranges from 4.4 to 9.3 m/ha, with the average value of 6.5 m/ha. Analyses in other variants indicated increase in the optimal density of road network with increased harvest costs. Increase in the cost of road construction reduces the optimal density of the road network, but this can be offset by the greater increase in the cost of harvest. The current density of forest surfaced road network in tested districts is 3.8 m/ha, while the optimal density in basic variant (without changing the costs of harvesting and road construction) is at 6.5 m/ha. Bringing the road network to the optimal state will require increase in the density of the road network of 2.7 m/ha, which means that the construction of an additional 2 119 km of roads in tested forest districts and about 10 times more in whole state forests in Poland.

Key words: forest road network, optimal density of forestry roads, timber harvesting costs

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):179-187]

Potencjalna ilość surowca drzewnego najwyższych klas jakości w Polsce
Potential volume of the highest quality timber in Poland

Abstract: The determination of the actual volume of valuable wood assortments was based on wood quality assessment (grading) carried out in the selected forest stands, being the State Forests' primary method of allowable cut determination. The research covered pine, beech, oak, birch and alder stands and those with sycamore as an admixture species for which in 2009−2011 forest district staff prepared grading estimates and determined the actual level of cut. To estimate the share of valuable timber, three stands intended for final cutting were selected for each tree species. The research was conducted in 21 forest stands in three Regional Directorates of State Forests: Szczecin, Krosno and Lublin. The choice of the Szczecin and Krosno RDSFs was due to the fact of their having the largest (for many years) timber resources providing significant amounts of valuable timber, whereas the Lublin RDSF showed average amounts of valuable wood in Poland. On the example of the Storage Sites of the State Forests in Stargard Szczeciński, the amounts of valuable wood assortments resulting from the reclassification of the large−sized wood purchased from the forest districts were analyzed. The field verification of grading estimates carried out in the selected research areas pointed to a tendency of forest districts to underestimate the quality grades including the volume of valuable wood assortments while estimating the quality of standing trees. These estimates placed the volume of valuable wood assortments at: WA1 – 0.3% and WB1 – 5.3% compared to the verified volumes of: WA1 – 1.7% and WB1 – 5.8% in the total estimated wood volume. The accuracy of estimating the volume of valuable wood assortments can be increased by introducing amendments to the existing regulations governing the grading of standing trees as regards determining the actual length of the estimated valuable wood assortments. It is necessary to change the approach to grading by stating the actual volume of valuable wood assortments in the research areas. The storage sites continue to fulfil an important role by reclassifying the timber purchased from forest districts and making their commercial value more realistic. The storage sites contribute to the increasing of financial revenues from forest management and are the right place to conduct auctions and submission sales of valuable timber.

Key words: grading, wood veneer, plywood, harvest

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):188-200]

Uszkodzenia drzew i odnowienia w wyniku pozyskania drewna z użyciem urządzeń agregowanych z ciągnikami rolniczymi w trzebieżowych drzewostanach świerkowych
Damages to trees and regeneration as a result of timber harvesting with an equipment combined to the farm tractors in thinned spruce stands

Abstract: This paper aimed to describe the level and nature of damages affecting standing trees and regeneration in spruce (Picea abies L.) stands of younger and medium age classes, growing on sloping terrain. The stands in question were subjected to early and late selective thinning using motor−manual technologies in cut−to−length (CTL PROCESOR technology) and tree−length system (TLS KRPAN technology). The research enclosed an estimation of damages that occurred while employing technologies with rarely encountered NIAB 5−15 and HYPRO 450 processors, and those engaging cable winches commonly used in Polish forests, such as KRPAN 8EH. The research was conducted in the Nowy Targ Forest District, situated within the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Krakow, and the Wisła Forest District (RDSF in Katowice). During the field research eighteen rectangular sample plots were established (six plots per every device combined with a farm tractor). Within the sample plots, on the net of squares, circular areas (50 m 2 ) were delimited, where a preliminary inventory of trees and undercanopy regeneration was performed. After finishing timber harvesting, the second inventory was conducted, using computer software, regarding logging damages to standing trees and saplings in the regeneration layer. The field research and statistical analyses allowed to determine that employing the cable winch technology in logging operations resulted in wounding 2.3% of tress (1.2−6.2%). Whereas, thinning treatments engaging technologies with NIAB and HYPRO processors caused damages to, respectively, 5.9% and 11.0% of trees, counting in total 7.7% (3.1−22.2%). Moreover, the difference between the damage levels in these three technologies was proved to be significant (fig.). In respect of the wound extension, the injuries on trees damaged upon applying the TLS KRPAN technology were smaller than those emerged when the CTL PROCESOR technology was employed. However, these differences appeared to be statistically insignificant (tab. 2). Based on the analysis of the position of wounds on tree trunks, it was determined that the injuries caused by engaging both of the above−mentioned technologies were situated at nearly the same height (tab. 2). With regard to the regeneration, the share of wounded or damaged trees was slightly higher when compared with the cable winch technology (tab. 3). Still, the estimated values of damages related to the employed technologies remained at the same level (fig.). Commonly known susceptibility of spruce stands to infections caused by parasitic fungi (mostly of Armillaria and Heterobasidion genera), should oblige the entities engaged in timber harvesting (administrative bodies of the State Forests and service providers) to take all the necessary technological and technical measures to reduce the level of damages, firstly those affecting butt end zone and roots of trees.

Key words: thinning processor, cable winch, early and late selective thinning, motor−manual technology, sloping terrain

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):201-210]

Metodyczne podstawy analizy czynników wpływających na poziom inwestycji w prywatnych firmach leśnych
Methodology for the analysis of factors influencing the level of investment in private forest companies

Abstract: The article presents the effect of selected factors on the level of investment in private forest companies providing services to the State Forests in Poland. The scope of research included the characterization of private forest companies providing services to the State Forests and forestry enterprises, the factors affecting the level of investment in private forest companies and the relationships between those factors and the level of investment in private forest companies. The data on the financial performance of forest districts and on the extent of their tasks in the field of timber harvest were obtained from the General Directorate of State Forests, while the information in the field of competition in the forestry labour market was obtained from the materials made available by the Forest Research Institute. The data necessary to analyze the influence of selected factors on the level of investment in private forest companies were obtained through a questionnaire survey. The survey was carried out in 2006 and 2007 and concerned the current financial and investment situation (2004−2006) and the strategy for further action. From the companies participating in the survey in 2008, those were selected that showed the level of investment in excess of 5%. The survey included the decision−making process preceding the investment decision and investment plans of the companies. Nine external factors were subjected to statistical verification. They were related to the recipients of the services (forest districts), barriers to the introduction of modern technical resources, the situation on the labour market and competition on the forest services market. Among the factors of internal origin, there were 14 factors related to the financial potential of companies, the terms of corporate governance, technical resources and business strategy. For statistical verification of the factors, an indicator of the level of investment in private forest companies was developed. The effect of the examined factors on the level of investment in private forest companies was verified statistically. The analyzes were performed in SPSS. The presented research methodology for the analysis of factors influencing the level of investment in private forest companies providing services to the State Forests allowed answering the questions about the level and scope of the impact of individual external and internal factors, as well as formulating conclusions indicating the possibility of improving the situation in the forest services sector.

Key words: private forest companies, investment, external factors, internal factors

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):211-219]

Stan roślinności nadodrzańskich lasów łęgowych w okolicach Wołowa
Vegetation condition in the Odra river riparian forests in the area of Wołów

Abstract: Altering hydrological conditions of the Odra river pose a threat to the existing riverside vegetation. The aim of this paper was to analyze the changes of the selected riparian forests. The study was conducted in 2011 in the south−western part of Wołów Forest District (SW Poland). Two riparian forest habitats (Ficario Ulmetum−minoris association) were selected for the study: site I, directly adjacent to the old river bed, and site II, bordering site I on the edge of the floodplain and adjacent to the oak−hornbeam forest (Galio sylvatici−Carpinetum betuli association) that constituted site III. Within each site ten plots (10×10 m) were randomly selected and their reléves were taken. We analyzed species diversity and total vegetation cover estimated for four layers: canopy, undercanopy, shrub layer and understorey. The Tüxen and Ellenberg systematic value of species group for species characteristic for Alno−Ulmion and Carpinon betuli alliances were used to evaluate succession direction. Connections of species composition and type of forest community were supported by detrended canonical analysis (DCA). The greatest species abundance and plant density were recorded for the groundcover at site I. Both on site I and II, a tendency to reduce the share of hygrophytic species and expansion of mesophilic species (originating from adjacent oak−hornbeam forest habitats) were observed. An analysis of frequency of the taxa typical for Alno−Ulmion and Carpinion betuli alliances showed strong disturbances in the floristic composition on the edge of a floodplain (site II). However, basing on DCA ordination analysis, accounting for the share of all the species in the patches, a common taxonomic identity of both riparian sites was confirmed. The study indicates an unsatisfactory condition of the riparian forests in the area of Wołów, particularly on the edge of the floodplain. A gradual transformation of the riparian forests into oak−hornbeam forest will lead to the disappearance of these valuable plant associations.

Key words: riparian vegetation, changes of the vegetation, floodplain of Odra

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):220-226]

Kryteria wymiarowe uznawania drzew za pomniki przyrody w Polsce
Dimensional criteria for recognition of trees as monuments of nature in Poland

Abstract: The aim of this work is to summarize actual data concerning recognition of trees as the monuments of nature in Poland. Recognizing the trees as monuments of nature and action taken for their protection should be made on the basis of clear and objectives criteria. The Act on the Protection of Nature does not contain any criteria for recognition as natural monuments for trees, their clusters (groups) and alleys. These deficiencies result in skipping certain natural objects, their groups or alleys, in favour to the others with other features, the most impressive size and good state of health. The main impetus for conferring protection was the most impressive tree size, especially thickness (circumference) of the trunk. The proposed minimum circuits to be protected candidate – a specimen tree for protection as a natural monument, are slightly different from the proposals of other authors. In contrast to previous proposals dimensional for the trees – candidates for natural monuments, calculations are based on statistical averages of monumental trees circuits protected monumental yet. From the data shows that in some cases the minimum circumference should be slightly higher (eg. oak), and for some species proposed for protection monumental lower than recommended in the past (eg. European beech, Scots pine). The paper proposes a minimum circuits constituting the initial criterion in the concept of establishing monuments of nature – trees. This proposes of circuits are minimum initial criteria for establishing trees – monuments of nature. It is believed that the proposed minimum dimensions for the recognition of trees as monuments of nature have a positive impact when deciding on the recognition of successive of living creations of nature. Analyses will fill a gap in the notes on the dimensions of monumental trees on the ground, in the field, as the initial criterion in establishing trees – monuments of nature.

Key words: nature protection, monuments of nature, individual trees

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):227-235]

Wpływ zmiennych środowiskowych na stan zdrowotny klonu pospolitego (Acer platanoides L.) w wybranych parkach i lasach komunalnych Poznania
Effect of environmental variables on health condition of Acer platanoides L. in urban parks and forests of the city of Poznań

Abstract: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) is a common species in cities. It can also be found as an extra species among the tree stand of municipal forests, which are dominated by other species. It is often planted in urban parks, open landscape, buffer strips, because this tree is resistant to most pollutants of anthropogenic origin. However, it is potentially sensitive to salinity and the accumulated effect of SOx , NOxand dust containing heavy metals. It is necessary to note that maple is a significant species to the development of urban open space. The aim of the study was to investigate the condition of A. platanoides in the municipal forests and non−historic parks of Poznań (western Poland) and to check which environmental variables have the influence on the health status of the trees. The research comprised the municipal forests (3) and non−historic parks (6) in the city and was conducted from 2010 to 2013. Field analyses concerned detailed inventory of trees and the determination of the state of health of each specimen. The data acquired in the study enabled the construction of CVA models. The maples in the municipal forests in Poznań were characterised by a higher health status than the specimens in urban parks. The research also revealed that such environmental variables as proximity to industrial centres and main thoroughfares had the greatest influence on the health status of the analysed trees. The investigated maples which grew in the parks located in the districts heated with fossil fuels proved to be of significantly worse health. As far as age is concerned, the specimens aged between 41 and 70 years were in the best condition.

Key words: health condition, urban areas, urban forests, statistical models

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):236-245]

Zawartość rtęci w glebach leśnych narażonych na oddziaływanie zanieczyszczeń komunikacyjnych
Content of mercury in the forest soils exposed to traffic pollution

Abstract: The increased content of trace elements in the environment is one of the major factors determining hazard for humans, animals and plants. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the total content of mercury forms in the surface horizons of the forest soils exposed to the effect of road traffic pollution in a close vicinity of provincial road #223 between Bydgoszcz and Białe Błota (N Poland). The study involved 12 measurement points 25 meters away from the road, in the afforested land. The research material was sampled from two soil horizons: 5−20 cm and 20−50 cm in depth. The total mercury content was assayed using the AMA−254 analyser. The soil samples showed light grain size composition, with loamy sand dominating. There was a small range of variation in the content of clay fraction from 0.75 to 1.96% as well as silt fraction from 9.35 to 22.11%. The soil reaction was acid and it ranged from 3.9 to 5.2 pH in H 2 O as well as from 3.6 to 4.6 pH in 1 M KCl. The organic carbon content ranged from 0.6 to 17.2 g/kg. The results showed that there was no mercury contamination. The determined concentrations of mercury were close to the geochemical background level. The total content of the mercury in the soil samples from the humus horizons (5−20 cm) ranged from 55.01 to 117,52 µg/kg, while from the eluvial horizons (20−50 cm) from 21.61 to 102.17 µg/kg. We found a decrease in the total mercury content with soil depth. The soil samples analysed can be considered unpolluted with that metal. The close vicinity of the road transport route does not have a considerable effect on the content of the element. The clay fraction and the content of organic carbon does not play a significant role in binding mercury in the analysed soils.

Key words: top soil, mercury, contamination, road traffic

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):246-251]

Miejscowe plany zagospodarowania przestrzennego a zmiana przeznaczenia gruntów leśnych w gminach miejskich w Polsce
Land−use plans and a change of use of forest land in the urban communes in Poland

Abstract: Forests in urban communes are important landscape, natural and environmental elements. In accordance with the sustainable development concept, one has to demonstrate the care of this element of urban area. Local authorities which become an important factor in the process of land deforestation play a significant role in this issue. Having obtained adequate permissions, local authorities have to work out a land−use plan that legitimizes land deforestation. The article presents which communes have changed forest areas to the forest−free areas in their land−use plans. The research concerns Polish cities that have an administrative−legal status of urban communes. Detailed objective included the assessment of the forest land loss indicator that shows the fraction of forest land to be deforested in land−use plans with reference to the total forest land area recorded in a commune in 2012. The data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland, concerning land−use plans, deliver information about changes in the status of farm land and land deforestation. Because of the indicator development, it was possible to assess how local authorities influence the changes in forest land information sources. 43% of Polish urban communes have records indicating the necessity of deforesting the forest lands in their land−use plans. Taking into consideration the forest land loss indicator, it has to be indicated that less than 10% of urban communes were above its average value. In this group there were cities, which considerably changed their forest land area located within their administrative borders. Those communes assumed deforestation of at least 20% of forest land. This group included seven cities that constituted 23% of the researched group and less than 2.3% of all the urban communes in 2012. The research enabled to identify the urban units that considerably influence forest land. An additional conclusion is the fact that local authorities only in few cases decide to considerably decrease the forest land in their sources, bearing in mind the consequences of such changes.

Key words: land−use plan, forest land, urban commune, land use change, deforestation index

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):252-258]

Znaczenie Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego dla mieszkańców aglomeracji poznańskiej
Importance of the Wielkopolski National Park for the residents of Poznań agglomeration

Abstract: The aim of the study was to estimate perception of the value of the Wielkopolski National Park (WPN) among different groups of people living in Poznań agglomeration (western Poland). The study was based on questionnaires conducted in the year 2012. Analyses were carried out on the basis of 1350 records. The questionnaire included questions about general relation towards WPN, about the willingness of respondents to pay the costs to the environment and questions characterizing respondents socio−econimically. The results of the survey were subjected to canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study showed that the relation with the natural environment is very different among various groups of society. The use of different analytical tools in relation to the survey data allowed the quantification of this diversity. Analyses showed a relationship between the financial status of the respondents and their relationship to nature conservation (p<0.01). The more wealthy people declared willingness to support WPN financially, but in turn, they did not want to engage themselves into activity involving their own work. The poorer less willingly declared financial support, but they were keen of the possibility of taking their time to engage in work for WPN. Analyses revealed that a group of the poorest as well as the richest did not indicate the interest in any form of WNP support.

Key words: value of environment, national park, tourism development, nature protection, forest

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (3):259-264]

Rok : 2015, Zeszyt : 02
Regulowanie stanu prawnego nieruchomości Lasów Państwowych wykorzystywanych na cele nieleśne
Regulation of the legal status of the State Forests National Forest Holding real estates used for non−forest purposes

Abstract: Forest land administered by the State Forests, National Forest Holding is sometimes used for non−forest purposes, i.e. for recreation centres, hotel service facilities or for public roads. Some of this land is developed with buildings or facilities constructed by tenants and is used by them. The paper describes the problem of evaluating the legal status of such land with regard to the ownership, Land and Property Register data, permitted use in the local plan and exclusion of the land from forest use. The case study is based on the example of the Elemis Recreation Centre located in Stare Jabłonki, Ostróda commune, whose land is administered by the Stare Jabłonki Forest District. The performed analysis defined actions leading to the organising of the legal status of such facilities. These actions include: separation of plots with different types of use, ordering the status of the register by updating the type of use, exclusion of the forest land from production, updating the local zoning plan, land development legalization.

Key words: forest property, legal status, public forests, management

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (2):103-108]

Polodowcowa historia jodły pospolitej (Abies alba Mill.) w Polsce jako efekt migracji z różnych ostoi plejstoceńskich – dotychczasowy stan wiedzy
Postglacial history of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Poland as a result of migration from different refugia – the current state of knowledge

Abstract: The paper reviews the current knowledge about the genetic variation, glacial and postglacial history of Polish populations of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). This species occurs in the mountainous forests of central and southern Europe, from the Pyrenees up to the Balkans, where it is important from both ecological and economical points of view. The current knowledge about glacial and postglacial history of fir has been obtained from palynological and genetic studies. During the last ice age A. alba survived in the refugia in southern Europe, the central Apennines, the south of the Balkan Peninsula and the Central Massif in France. Two other refugia remained isolated – one in Calabria in the south of the Apennines and one in the Pyrenees. Furthermore the most likely routes of postglacial recolonization of silver fir as well as the introgression zone between them have been identified. In Poland, silver fir reaches the north−eastern border of its natural range. Several earlier studies based on isozymes and DNA markers (mitochondrial and chloroplast) have reported that the Polish populations of fir are characterized by lower levels of genetic variation within populations and higher genetic differentiation between them than other coniferous species. Fir probably migrated to Poland from two glacial refugia located in the Balkan and Apennines Peninsula. Notwithstanding, a recent study on Polish silver fir populations carried out with mtDNA marker, strictly maternally inherited, indicated that the species migrated to the Polish territory from the refugium in western Europe. However, this study did not take into account the possibility of participation of pollen pool of Balkan origin in the formation of the Polish populations of fir. Until now, there have been only a few reports concerning the gene pool of fir in Poland. Therefore, it is necessary to supplement the knowledge about its genetic variation. In the course of several episodes of silver fir decline during the past century, its populations have decreased in size and currently are scattered throughout the entire European range. Reliable information on the distribution of genetic variation is a prerequisite for proper management of forest genetic resources in a short−term and long−term perspective. The recognition of the existing genetic diversity is also the preliminary phase in development of an effective strategy for conservation of forest tree species gene pools.

Key words: genetic variation, genetic conservation, Abies alba Mill., postglacial history

[2015] [Sylwan 159 (2):109-116]

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