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Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 06
Artykuł
ANDRZEJ GRZYWACZ, ARKADIUSZ BRUCHWALD
Do czytelników

[SYLWAN 158 (6):403-403, 2014]

TADEUSZ ANDRZEJCZYK, LESZEK BOLIBOK, WŁODZIMIERZ BURACZYK, STANISŁAW DROZDOWSKI, HENRYK SZELIGOWSKI
Wpływ warunków siedliskowych na zróżnicowanie wysokości dębu na gniazdach
Effect of habitat conditions on the variation of oak height in the gaps

Abstract: The paper presents the study on the height of 10−12−year−old pedunculate oak regeneration in clear−cut gaps in three fertility variants: mezotrophic of poorer productivity (fresh mixed coniferous forest – BMśw), mezotrophic of higher productivity (fresh mixed deciduous forest – LMśw) and eutrophic (fresh deciduous forest – Lśw). BMśw and LMśw were represented by two locations: Gostynin (G) and Parczew (P), while Lśw – by one: Czarna Białostocka (CzB). We analysed the variation of oak height in the patches along the north−south (N−S) and east−west (E−W) gap axes. In each location 3−5 gaps were selected and measurements taken on three transects along the N−S axis located in the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) part. Significant differences in oak height were found along the N−S axis. Oaks in the BMśw and LMśw habitats in the south−central part, and those in the Lśw habitat in the centre−northern part of the patch were the highest. The height growth of oaks on sandy soils (BMśw, LMśw) was found to be limited by moisture deficit, while on loamy soils (Lśw) – by light deficiency. The differences in oak height along the E−W axis were smaller and less apparent, indicating a tendency towards the reduction of their height growth in the central part of the gap.

Key words: pedunculate oak, clear−cut gap, plantations, forest regeneration, patch cutting system

[SYLWAN 158 (6):404-413, 2014]

RAFAŁ PODLASKI, FRANCIS A. ROESCH
Aproksymacja rozkładów pierśnic drzew w dwugeneracyjnych drzewostanach za pomocą rozkładów mieszanych. III. Estymatory jądrowe a rozkłady mieszane
Approximation of the breast height diameter distribution of two−cohort stands by mixture models. III. Kernel density estimators vs mixture models

Abstract: Two−component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution and the kernel density estimator were used for describing the diameter at breast height (dbh) empirical distributions of two−cohort stands. The data consisted of study plots from the Świętokrzyski National Park (central Poland) and areas close to and including the North Carolina section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA; southern Appalachians). Kernel density estimators belong to a class of nonparametric density estimators. Nonparametric estimators have no fixed structure and depend upon all the data points to reach an estimate. In this study the Weibull and the gamma mixture distributions were the most versatile models. The results also support the conclusion that there are only minor differences between the parametric models and the kernel density estimates.

Key words: two−component models, kernel density estimator, tree diameter distribution, Monte Carlo simulation

[SYLWAN 158 (6):414-422, 2014]

SZYMON BIJAK, KAROL BRONISZ, PAULINA SZYDŁOWSKA, RAFAŁ WOJTAN
Wpływ jakości siedliska na dynamikę wydzielania brzozy na gruntach porolnych
Effect of site quality on self−thinning dynamics in silver birch stands on abandoned farmlands

Abstract: Paper discusses the influence of site quality on self−thinning process in silver birch stands growing on abandoned farmlands in Mazowieckie region (central Poland). Number of trees in a stand decreases with increasing age. The better the site (the higher site index value), the higher number of trees can be observed. However at the age of 10 difference between sites of various quality (site index) become insignificant. There is no need to include site index into the self−thinning models for young silver birch stands.

Key words: stand density, site index, silver birch, afforestation, central Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (6):423-430, 2014]

WOJCIECH OCHAŁ, JAROSŁAW SOCHA, STANISŁAW GRABCZYŃSKI
Dokładność wzorów empirycznych służących do określania biomasy nadziemnych komponentów drzew olszy czarnej (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)
Accuracy of empirical formulas for determining aboveground biomass of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

Abstract: The study investigated the accuracy of thirty equations formulated in England, Sweden, Turkey, Lithuania and Spain and which aim to determine the aboveground biomass of black alder. The reference constituted of bark, timber, stem, branches and leaves dry biomass of 168 sample trees aged 6−96 from 56 alder stands located in the western part of Kotlina Sandomierska (south−eastern Poland). The analysed formulas, considering local conditions, resulted in biased biomass calculations. The evaluation of such components as leaves, branches, trunk timber or trunk bark is subject to systematic errors larger than a dozen or so per cent, and in certain ranges of breast height diameters − up to even a couple of dozens or a few hundred per cent. Only three out of 30 formulas may be considered useful for estimating aboveground biomass of black alder in Poland.

Key words: black alder, aboveground biomass, accuracy assessment, empirical formulas, Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (6):431-442, 2014]

PIOTR GRUBA, JAROSŁAW SOCHA, EWA BŁOŃSKA, JAROSŁAW LASOTA, ANDRZEJ SUCHANEK, PAWEŁ GOŁĄB
Wpływ skały macierzystej na przestrzenne zróżnicowanie zasobów węgla organicznego w glebach leśnych
Influence of parent material on the spatial distribution of organic carbon stock in the forest soils

Abstract: The study focused on the influence of several soil properties and forest species composition on spatial distribution of organic carbon stock in soils developed from the contrasted parent materials: Tertiary claystones and sandstones, and Qurternary sands of different origins. Soil sampling was performed on 110 plots, while forest mensuration was conducted on 82 ones. The content of <0.05 mm fraction determined by the type of parent material played a key role in the distribution of carbon stock in soils. Higher content of fine fraction favoured the accumulation in mineral part of soil, while higher sand content had an indirect influence on accumulation of carbon in the organic horizon. Forest species composition and biomass volume are more important for C accumulation in the O horizons. Taking into account the geological heterogeneity, the size of investigation area played a prominent role for the statistical significance of the observed correlations between carbon stocks and the other soil properties.

Key words: carbon sequestration, spatial variability, species composition, soil properties

[SYLWAN 158 (6):443-452, 2014]

DANI N. SARSEKOVA, MICHAŁ ZASADA
Produkcyjność plantacji wybranych klonów topoli w południowo−wschodnim Kazachstanie
Productivity of the selected poplar cultivars in the plantation conditions in south−eastern Kazakhstan

Abstract: The topic of forest plantations is particularly important in countries with low forest cover, where the demand for wood is particularly high, such as e.g. Kazakhstan. The main goal of this paper is to present the results of research on the productivity of selected cultivars of poplar: 62027−1 hybrid and Kazakh poplar, grown in various spacings (2,5×1, 3×1,5 and 3×2 m, which translates to stocking of 4000, 2220 and 1667 trees per ha, respectively), and the possibility of their cultivation in the conditions of southeastern Kazakhstan. The conducted experiments confirmed the high production potential of the selected hybrid poplars. The average volume of the individual trees' trunks at the age of 23 years reached 0,4−0,5 m³, the total growing stock can be up to 800−1000 m³/ha and the mean annual increment from 29 to 44 m³/ha. More adapted to the local conditions proved to be hybrids belonging to a section of white poplars. Due to dying tree tops and signs of damage from insects emerging at age exceeding 22−23 years, observed especially in plantations consisting up of hybrids belonging to the black poplars section, plantation rotation should not exceed 20 years. Establishing the poplar plantations using selected varieties is also one of the promising ways for reclamation of the saline soils of south−eastern Kazakhstan. Along with the timber and the possible use of biomass, plantations can be also used as a source of feed and hay for livestock.

Key words: forest productivity, land reclamation, initial spacing, tree stocking, volume increment

[SYLWAN 158 (6):453-462, 2014]

SŁAWOMIR WILCZYŃSKI, NORBERT SZYMAŃSKI
Pionowe strefy oraz piętra dendroklimatyczne w Beskidach Zachodnich
Altitudinal dendroclimatic zones and belts in the Beskidy Zachodnie Mountains

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in radial increment reaction of Norway spruces from the Beskidy Zachodnie Mountains (S Poland). Spruce stands were located at different altitudes and slope aspect. Two altitudinal zones were distinguished by a separating altitude of 900 m a.s.l. The dendrochronological belts, consistent in terms of radial increment, amount to 200−250 m in the lower zone, and narrow down to ca. 100 m in the upper one. Factor differentiating radial increment of spruces at various altitudes was temperature in September of previous year as well as precipitation in March and June of current year.

Key words: tree ring, dendroclimatic belts, Picea abies, Beskidy Zachodnie Mountains

[SYLWAN 158 (6):463-472, 2014]

NATALIA RATAJCZYK, AGNIESZKA WOLAŃSKA-KAMIŃSKA, IZABELA ZAJĄC
Dynamika roślinności rezerwatów Doliska i Zimna Woda (Nadleśnictwo Rogów) na przestrzeni 50 lat
Vegetation dynamics in Doliska and Zimna Woda nature reserves (Rogów Forest District) over 50 years

Abstract: The paper presents the changes in vascular plants vegetation of Doliska and Zimna Woda nature reserves (central Poland). In 1960s Pino−Quercetum forest was noted at both reserves. Nowadays, it evolved into an oak−lime−hornbeam forest Tilio−Carpinetum betuli. The gradual replacement of Scots pine and other coniferous species into broad−leaved species is observed. Additionally, flora synanthropization and encroachment of invasive alien species (e.g. Impatiens parviflora) into the reserves was found.

Key words: oak−lime−hornbeam forest, regeneration, nature conservation, invasive species

[SYLWAN 158 (6):473-480, 2014]

Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 05
Artykuł
Pokaż
zeszyt
BARBARA GŁOWACKA, IWONA SKRZECZ, CEZARY BYSTROWSKI
Ograniczanie liczebności osnui gwiaździstej Acantholyda posticalis Mats. w drzewostanach sosnowych
Reducing the abundance of great pine web−spinning pine sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Mats. in pine stands

Abstract: The study aimed at the estimation of efficacy of the insecticide Mospilan 20 SP (active substance: acetamipryd 20%) used at different doses to reduce the number of great pine web−spinning pine sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Mats. in aerial (doses: 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg/ha) and ground treatments (dose: 0.4 kg/ha). The mortality of A. posticalis larvae reached 57.5−71.6% in aerial treatments. However the insecticide used at the dose of 0.4 kg/ha in aerial and ground treatments caused 95−99% mortality of the pest.

Key words: Acantholyda posticalis, Pinus sylvestris, acetamipryd, Mospilan 20 SP

[SYLWAN 158 (5):323-330, 2014]

WŁADYSŁAW CHAŁUPKA
Zasoby genowe i potencjał hodowlany daglezji (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) w lasach niektórych krajów europejskich
Genetic resources and silvicultural potential of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in some European countries

Abstract: Since the beginning of XIX century a considerable number of Douglas fir populations from North America were introduced to many European countries. In France, Douglas fir is still going to increase significantly its participation in growing stock and wood harvest. There are also some countries (e.g. the Netherlands), where the interest in breeding and silviculture of Douglas fir have been decreased in last decades. The data from the European literature was collected to show a current volume stock, growth increment, gene resources and qualified seed sources of Douglas fir in the outlook of the future role of the species in European forest economy. A short outlook on the breeding programs of Douglas fir working out in several European countries was also presented.

Key words: Douglas fir, introduction, Europe, volume stock, registered base material

[SYLWAN 158 (5):331-339, 2014]

JAROSŁAW SOCHA, MICHAŁ ZASADA
Zagęszczenie i dynamika procesu wydzielania drzew w młodocianych drzewostanach brzozowych na gruntach porolnych
Stand density and self−thinning dynamics in young birch stands on post−agricultural lands

Abstract: The study describes allometric relationships between stand density and tree dimensions in birch stands on post−agricultural lands. The research material consisted of measurements carried out on 120 sample plots located in birch stands on post−agricultural lands of Central Poland. The investigated relationship was analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS), dynamical formulation of allometric function (DFA), stochastic frontier production function (SFF) as well as quantile regression (QR) methods. Similar effects of modeling maximum density were obtained as a result of applying FFP and QR methods with 0.9 quantile. SFF was found to be the most adequate method for modeling maximum density.

Key words: self−thinning, silver birch, abandoned farmlands, stochastic frontier function, quantile regression

[SYLWAN 158 (5):340-351, 2014]

TOMASZ LESKI, MARIA RUDAWSKA
Zbiorowiska grzybów ektomykoryzowych modrzewia europejskiego na powierzchni proweniencyjnej w LZD Krynica w Beskidzie Sądeckim
Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of European larch from the provenance trial in the Experimental Forestry Unit in Krynica Zdrój (Beskid Sądecki Mountains)

Abstract: The effects of tree genotype on below−ground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of 40 years old European larch from Kowary, Bliżyn, Świętokrzyski National Park and Szczytna Śląska origins was investigated. The research was carried out in the provenance trial in the Experimental Forestry Unit in Krynica Zdrój (Beskid Sądecki Mountains, S Poland). Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities were assessed by a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. In total 22 fungal taxa has been distinguished (from 17 to 20, depending on larch provenance). Thirteen ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa were common to all analysed origins. The mean taxa richness, Shannon diversity and Simpson dominance coefficient did not differ significantly between provenances. Based on fungal taxa composition (Jaccard coefficient) tested larch origins were characterized by a high level of similarity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Six detected fungal taxa have not been previously reported as symbiotic partners of European larch.

Key words: symbiosis, ectomycorrhiza, tree genotype, Larix decidua, ITS rDNA

[SYLWAN 158 (5):352-360, 2014]

MICHAŁ MAGNUSZEWSKI, JUSTYNA A. NOWAKOWSKA, MICHAŁ ZASADA, ALMAZBEK OROZUMBEKOV
Charakterystyka genetyczna świerka Schrenka (Picea schrenkiana) w gradiencie wysokościowym i geograficznym gór Tien−Szan w Kirgistanie
Genetic characteristic of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the altitudal and geographical gradient in Kyrgyz part of Tien−Shan mountains

Abstract: The study showed the genetic structure of nine Schrenk spruce stands, which represented altitude and geographical variants in the Tien−Shan mountains in Kyrgyzstan. Comparison between genetic structure of stands was based on frequencies of nuclear microsatellite (SSR) alleles occurring in three DNA loci. The total genetic differentiation of Schrenk spruce populations was low (FST=0.0651). Eight main groups of populations were distinguished in the dendrogram defined by Nei's genetic distances based on microsatellite markers.

Key words: SSR markers, genetic differentiation, genetic distance, Picea schrenkiana

[SYLWAN 158 (5):361-369, 2014]

ALEKSANDRA WOJNICKA-PÓŁTORAK, KONRAD CELIŃSKI, EWA CHUDZIŃSKA, WIESŁAW PRUS-GŁOWACKI, ADOLF F. KORCZYK
Profil genetyczny najstarszych drzew Picea abies (L.) Karst. w Puszczy Białowieskiej
Genetic profile of the oldest Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees in the Białowieża Primeval Forest

Abstract: The aim of this study was to: 1) describe the genetic structure of the population of old Picea abies trees in the Białowieża Primeval Forest and 2) design the genetic database for every examined tree in scope of 26 isoenzymatic loci containing: the genotype pattern, the number of stated alleles and the level of individual heterozygosity. We found that 101 out of 117 trees are characterized by a unique genotype pattern and 20 ones are completely homozygous individuals. The oldest Norway spruces in the Białowieża Primeval Forest are characterized by rather low level of genetic variation and their homozygous genotypes that are well adapted to their environment let them live to a ripe old age.

Key words: genetic structure, Picea abies, isoenzymatic markers, Białowieża Primeval Forest

[SYLWAN 158 (5):370-376, 2014]

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