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Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 12
Lata wskaźnikowe świerka pospolitego w Beskidach Zachodnich
Pointer years of Norway spruce in the Western Beskidy Mountains (southern Poland)

Abstract: The frequency of site and zonal pointer years in Norway spruce in two altitudinal zones (500−900 m and 900−1370 m a.s.l.) in the Western Beskidy Mountains was analysed. In total, 32 tree stands were studied – 16 in each zone. In both zones number of negative site pointer years increased along with increase of number of positive site pointer years. Above 900 m a. s. l. number of site pointer years increased along with the altitude, while below 900 m a.s.l. their number decreased along with the altitude. We found no common pointer years for all 32 populations. In lower zone, short winter, early and very warm spring or high precipitation in June and July in a given year caused negative pointer years. In the upper one positive pointer years occurred after the warm autumn and in years with the warm growing season.

Key words: tree rings, pointer years, Norway spruce, Western Beskidy Mountains, altitudinal zone

[SYLWAN 158 (12):883-892, 2014]

Właściwości próchnic gleb tworzących się w warunkach zalesionego zwałowiska po odkrywkowej kopalni siarki
Properties of humus in soils formed on afforested dumping ground of the sulphur mine

Abstract: The paper presents fractional composition and optical properties of the soil organic matter (SOM) developed on afforested dumping ground of the sulphur strip mine in Piaseczno near Tarnobrzeg (southern Poland). Research was designed for different soil−substrates and trees species. Soil−substrate type has the major impact on SOM characteristics at current stage of soil development. Black alder characterized with the strongest influence on SOM quality among species introduced on the dumping ground.

Key words: post−mining sites, afforestation, soil organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids

[SYLWAN 158 (12):893-900, 2014]

Wybrane parametry populacyjne zająca szaraka (Lepus europaeus L.) w rejonach największej liczebności gatunku w Polsce
Population parameters of brown hare (Lepus europaeus L.) in regions of the species highest density in Poland

Abstract: The paper presents the selected indicators of hare populations in Poland. The material consisted of 528 hares acquired during traditional hunts. For each hunted hare we specified its weight, sex and age. All individuals were classified into two age groups: the first comprised juveniles (up to 12 months of age), while the other – adults (over 12 months). The ratio of young individuals in relation adults varies a lot (26−56%). The males to females ratio was approximately 1:1 with a slight advantage in favor of females. Reproductive rate was between 0.36 and 1.26, while reproductive success – 0.7−2.7. Average weight of hunted hares ranged between 3.42 and 4.32 kg. No significant differences in body weight were noticed within gender groups (Z=1.298, p>0.05, Mann−Whitney U test). However, they were found within the age groups (Z=–9.657, p <0.05, Mann−Whitney U test).

Key words: brown hare, eye lens, age structure, population dynamics, Poland

[SYLWAN 158 (12):901-910, 2014]

Jakość trofealna muflonów tryków pozyskanych w Górach Bardzkich
Trophy quality of mouflons in the Bardzkie Mountains

Abstract: The aim of the study was to characterize individual quality of mouflon harvested in the Bardzkie Mountains (south−west Poland). The assessment criteria included horn dimensions, i.e. their length, circumference (base, middle and top), spread and twist. These features were individually analyzed for each mouflon ram. Medal value of the trophies expressed as CIC scores increased with the ram age reaching 187.12 for 6−years−old animals. Three out of 50 measured trophies were classified into the bronze medal category, as they crossed the threshold of 185 CIC points. All medal−winning individuals were 6 years old.

Key words: mouflon, horns, Bardzkie Mountains, CIC

[SYLWAN 158 (12):911-919, 2014]

Sprawozdanie Zarządu Głównego z działalności Polskiego Towarzystwa Leśnego od 7 września 2013 roku do 5 września 2014 roku

[SYLWAN 158 (12):920-949, 2014]

Spis treści rocznika CLVIII „Sylwana”
Content of annual CLVIII of "Sylwan"

[SYLWAN 158 (12):950-959, 2014]

Rok : 2014, Zeszyt : 11
Obserwacje migawkowe w pomiarach pracy przy pozyskiwaniu i zrywce drewna
Snapshot observations in work measurement during timber harvesting and skidding

Abstract: The paper presents results of examination on snapshot observation accuracy in measuring work times at harvesting and skidding of timber. High consistency between time measurements obtained by means of photography of work day method and snapshot observations was proved. Among advantages of the snapshot method one can name possibility to assess the time of work and breaks, evaluate proportion of supplementary work times and low labour intensity of the research.

Key words: timber harvesting, skidding, work measurement, chronometry, frequency study

[SYLWAN 158 (11):803-810, 2014]

Rozmieszczenie zasobów drzew z rodzaju wiąz (Ulmus spp.) w lasach Polski w świetle dokumentacji leśnej
Distribution of elms (Ulmus spp.) in Polish forests according to the forestry inventory data

Abstract: Elm resources in Poland were analysed on the basis of latest forestry inventory data (updated in 2012). As compared with the 1970s, a remarkable increase was noticed in the total area of forest stands dominated by elms. However, the contribution of elms to the total forest area in Poland is still small (17 653.67 ha, i.e. 0.24% of the total forest area), while forest stands dominated by them cover only 1011.84 hectares (0.01%). Elm forests are the most frequent at alluvial sites, but majority of elm trees is scattered in lowlands, mostly at the fertile potential sites of oak−hornbeam forest. Elms do not prefer any part of Poland, but their contribution is markedly lower in forests of the Sudety Mountains.

Key words: Ulmus, distribution in Poland, DED, forest documentation

[SYLWAN 158 (11):811-820, 2014]

Wpływ łuszczenia i czasu przechowywania nasion olszy czarnej (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner) na kiełkowanie, wschody i wzrost siewek
Effect of seed extraction, seed lot, and storage duration on germination capacity and seedling emergence of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner

Abstract: Black alder, a major forest tree species in Europe, thrives in moist soils. During the seeds extraction (nutlets) from the cones, the heaviest seeds were observed to fall out first. Seed weight was not correlated to the ability of germination; no significant differences were observed between the heaviest and the lightest seeds. Seeds with a fresh mass moisture content of 8−9% after storage in –3°C retained their high germinability for six winters. However, seedling emergence decreased gradually when tested in cell trays in an unheated greenhouse. Along with the decline of seedling emergence, the participation of high seedlings (≥25 cm) decreased and participation of small seedlings increased simultaneously. These results question whether the practice of storing seeds in –3°C for long time is the best method of germplasm preservation.

Key words: black alder; seed storage; containerized cultivation; seedling growth

[SYLWAN 158 (11):821-828, 2014]

Produktywność biomasy nadziemnej i podziemnej w doświadczeniu proweniencyjno−rodowym z dębem szypułkowym
Productiviy of aboveground and belowground biomass in an experiment with provenances and half−sib families of pedunculate oak

Abstract: The biomass productivity of individual trees at age 14 years was investigated in the experiment with 8 provenances and 186 half−sib families of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the study was to develop allometric equations and estimate heritability of tree biomass. We sampled 28 model trees and measured dry mass of their components, including roots (on 14 trees). A decreasing share of aboveground biomass was allocated to stems, and an increasing share to branches and foliage with increasing tree size. Also a decreasing share of total tree biomass was found in roots with increasing tree dimensions. Allometric equations involving diameter at breast height in combination with tree height were developed to model biomass of all components and whole tree. We used those equations to estimate tree biomass on the subset of research area, involving all provenances and 180 half−sib families. Heritability coefficients for tree biomass were the greatest for provenances (0.84), average for families (0.58) and the lowest for individual trees (0.18). However, estimates of family heritability varied by provenance (from 0.18 to 0.74). These findings suggest that the most efficient strategy for improvement of productivity in pedunculate oak would be selection of provenances and families within provenances.

Key words: allometry, biomass allocation, heritability, Quercus robur

[SYLWAN 158 (11):829-839, 2014]

Stała krzywa wysokości dla olszy czarnej (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) z zachodniej części Kotliny Sandomierskiej
Generalized height−diameter model for black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) in the western part of the Sandomierz Basin

Abstract: The study shows that the accuracy of tree height approximation by means of investigated functions is not modified by the age or site conditions of the analysed alder stands. The widest range of tree height variability was explained by Schnute (M5) function. Higher values of adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj) are usually obtained when the height of black alder stands in the western part of the Sandomierz Basin is determined with M2 height−diameter curve.

Key words: alder stands, height−diameter curve, local uniform height curve, the Sandomierz Basin

[SYLWAN 158 (11):840-849, 2014]

Wpływ wzniesienia nad poziom morza i podłoża geologicznego na produkcyjność siedlisk Beskidu Żywieckiego dla buka
Effect of elevation above sea level and geology on the site productivity for European beech in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topography and parent rock as well as selected characteristics of the soils on the site productivity for European beech in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains (S Poland). The research material consisted of measurements performed on sample plots ranging in size from 0.01 to 0.10 ha located in 50 beech stands aged 40−140 years. Productivity of beech stands was to the greatest extent determined by the elevation above sea level. The site index of beech stands is significantly affected by the type of geological substrate, whereas there was no relationship between productivity and analyzed soil characteristics.

Key words: Fagus silvatica, site index, parent rock, soil nutrient regime, site productivity

[SYLWAN 158 (11):850-859, 2014]

Intercepcja potencjalna zraszanego drzewa w zależności od gatunku i zmian zachodzących w czasie pojedynczego deszczu
Potential interception of sprayed tree in relations to tree species and changes occurring during single rainfall

Abstract: The concept of potential interception is used to determine maximum amount of water that can be retained by the surface of all parts of a sprayed tree. The word ‘potential' is supposed to emphasize the fact that ‘maximum interception' is not a constant value. For each individual rainfall it may assume a different value. Potential interception values depend each time on rainfall intensity and drop size. Nevertheless, formulas describing the influence of species specifics of trees and other characteristics of surface are still being searched for. It is also being indicated that some characteristics may demonstrate a certain dynamics related to time of exposure to factors capable of modulating these characteristics.

Key words: interception, canopy storage capacity, tree species, rain duration

[SYLWAN 158 (11):860-866, 2014]

Warunki środowiska wpływające na stan zachowania obuwika pospolitego Cypripedium calceolus L. w lasach gospodarczych
Environment conditions influence on protection status of lady's slipper orchid Cypripedium calceolus L. in managed forests

Abstract: The paper concerns forest populations of lady's slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus L.). The study sites were located in localities with the most numerous populations of Cypripedium calceolus L. in managed forests in Poland. The field studies were conducted in 2012 according to Natura 2000 sites protocols. The aim of studies was the determination of population structure of lady's slipper orchid, especially in indexes reflected number of flowering and fruit plants. The relations between above factors and environmental conditions expressed by ecological indicator values, cover of vegetation layers, species richness, stand age, and intensity of thinning were studies. The obtained results confirmed negative influence of understorey layer and positive influence of density of tree layer on the development of studied orchid populations. The increase in thinning intensity has not significant influence on protection status of Cypripedium calceolus.

Key words: endangered species, Natura 2000, plant ecology

[SYLWAN 158 (11):867-874, 2014]

Potencjał rekreacyjny Magurskiego Parku Narodowego a rzeczywista liczba zwiedzających
Recreational potential of the Magurski National Park versus the actual number of visitors

Abstract: The article presents the recreational potential of the forests within the Magurski National Park (MNP) and compares it with the actual number of visitors. The study examined 218 forest units comprising in total of 8653 ha, which accounts for 47% of the Park forest area. Forestation rate in the area amounts to 95%. Mean recreational capacity of the forests within the examined part of the MNP was 1.93 manhour/ha/day, yielding 29 persons/ha/year, while the actual number of tourists of 2.35 persons/ha/year. The findings show the recreational potential of the Magurski National Park is used at the low level.

Key words: national park, forest recreation, tourism

[SYLWAN 158 (11):875-879, 2014]

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